The New England Bee Hotel For Pollinators

A newly constructed “bee hotel” at the University of New Hampshire’s Woodman Farm isn’t much to look at — with its cinder block floors and pine cone-littered suites — but for the region’s pollinators, it’s as appealing as any five-star resort.

The bee hotel is at the center of the first-ever comprehensive study of New England’s bee population. The study, led by researchers at the University of New Hampshire’s New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station (NHAES), aims to assess the condition of the region’s estimated 250 species of bees.

“The study will establish the first complete diversity assessment of native bees in the region and also provide a better understanding of pollinator diversity and ecology,” Sandra Rehan, lead NHAES researcher and assistant professor of biological sciences at the University of New Hampshire’s College of Life Sciences and Agriculture (COLSA), said in a statement.

The study, called “Sustainable Solutions to Problems Affecting Bee Health,” was launched to coincide with National Pollinator Week (June 16-22), an annual event sanctioned by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture that highlights the urgent issue of declining pollinator populations in the United States.

“Basic data on species diversity and habitat preferences will be fundamental to future studies to ameliorate declining bee populations and to target species at risk,” Rehan said.

In addition to helping protect native bees in New England, Rehan said the project is designed to raise awareness about how humans are affecting pollinator populations in the region, as well as across other areas of the country.

Bees, which play a critical role in the health of food crops and natural ecosystems, have experienced rapid declines in population and diversity over the past several years, research from NHAES shows.

And humans deserve at least part of the blame for this decline. Loss of habitat and agricultural environments, as well as the widespread use of pesticides and chemicals in farming, are believed to be contributing to the current bee crisis throughout the United States.

 

The value of pollination to agriculture is estimated at more than $200 billion each year worldwide, said Rehan, who oversees the University of New Hampshire’s Bee Lab.  This makes the university’s research into the subject even more pressing, and has led to the launch of a longer-term project to monitor the biodiversity of bees in New Hampshire. The bee hotel at Woodman Farm represents one part of this project, with other monitoring sites at NHAES facilities also contributing much-needed data.

“By documenting what species are abundant, common and rare to the area, we can track species habitat and floral preferences,” Rehan said.  “By further developing long-term monitoring, we can identify species at risk and changes in bee communities.”

The researchers plan to use genomic screening on the winged guests of the bee hotel to identify which species suffer low genetic variability. This trait, the researchers explained, may indicate certain genetic issues that can lead to the decline or even extinction of a species.

John Wraith, NHAES director and dean of the College of Life Sciences and Agriculture, expressed enthusiasm for the bee hotel project and its related studies, noting the impact that pollinators have in New Hampshire and its neighboring regions.

“These are critically important, time-sensitive issues that face our state and regional producers, gardeners, residents and visitors,” Wraith said in a statement.

“We’re excited to support this work within our engaged research portfolio.”

 

Rehan is equally excited about the studies, and hopes that continued research and education can help reverse the trend in declining bee populations in New England and other regions.

“By educating New Hampshire citizens, farmers and policymakers about native bees and habitat preferences, we can encourage the regional and national authorities to create and maintain native bee habitats,” Rehan said.

Meditation Found To Help With Anxiety And Depression?

According to recent research from John Hopkins Research, 30 minutes of meditation can possibly help ease the symptoms of anxiety and depression. asics onitsuka tiger donna But how exactly does it work?

The researchers evaluated the degree to which those symptoms changed in people who had a variety of medical conditions, such as insomnia or fibromyalgia, although only a minority had been diagnosed with a mental illness. Canotta Milwaukee Bucks MadhavGoyal, an assistant professor in the Division of General Internal Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and his colleagues found that so-called “mindfulness meditation” — a form of Buddhist self-awareness designed to focus precise, nonjudgmental attention to the moment at hand — also showed promise in alleviating some pain symptoms as well as stress. New Balance 998 mujer The findings held even as the researchers controlled for the possibility of the placebo effect, in which subjects in a study feel better even if they receive no active treatment because they perceive they are getting help for what ails them.

To conduct their review, the investigators focused on 47 clinical trials performed through June 2013 among 3,515 participants that involved meditation and various mental and physical health issues, including depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, substance use, diabetes, heart disease, cancer and chronic pain. Maglie New Orleans Pelicans

They found moderate evidence of improvement in symptoms of anxiety, depression and pain after participants underwent what was typically an eight-week training program in mindfulness meditation. Canotte Selección de USA They discovered low evidence of improvement in stress and quality of life. Trevor Siemian Jerseys There was not enough information to determine whether other areas could be improved by meditation. store locator for new balance shoes In the studies that followed participants for six months, the improvements typically continued.

Mindfulness meditation, the type that showed the most promise, is typically practiced for 30 to 40 minutes a day. Cheap Nike Trainers UK It emphasizes acceptance of feelings and thoughts without judgment and relaxation of body and mind. Nike Air Max Goedkoop He cautions that the literature reviewed in the study contained potential weaknesses.

Saturn’s Polar Hexagon Explained

This may seem like an odd thing for a bee-based skincare and honey site to be posting about, but we love all aspects of what makes up a beehive. One of those very important things is the shape of the honeycomb. fjallraven kanken classic 16 L A hexagon is the most erognomic shape and the perfect match for something as complex yet simple as a honeycomb. Adidas Pas Cher So whenever we see interesting news related to our favourite shape, we just have to share it, and what’s more fascinating than a naturally occurring hexagon on Saturn?

The unusual structure with a hexagonal shape surrounding Saturn’s north pole was spotted on the planet for the first time thirty years ago. Nothing similar with such a regular geometry had ever been seen on any planet in the Solar System. Womens Air Jordan 5 The Planetary Sciences Group has now been able to study and measure the phenomenon and, among other achievements, establish its rotation period. What is more, this period could be the same as that of the planet itself. Saturn is the only planet in the Solar System whose rotation time remains unknown. The research illustrates the front cover of the journal Geophysical Research Letters and has been highlighted by the publication’s editor.

In 1980 and 1981 NASA’s Voyager 1 and 2 space probes passed for the first time over the planet Saturn, located 1,500 million km from the Sun. Among their numerous discoveries they observed a strange, hexagon-shaped structure in the planet’s uppermost clouds surrounding its north pole. Air Jordan 2 Retro The hexagon remained virtually static, without moving, vis-à-vis the planet’s overall rotation that was not accurately known. Dennis Pitta Ravens Jerseys What is more, the images captured by the Voyager probes found that the clouds were moving rapidly inside the hexagon in an enclosed jet stream and were being dragged by winds travelling at over 400 km/h.

Thirty years later –the equivalent of one Saturn year, in other words, the time the planet takes to go all the way around the Sun– and over more than six consecutive years, researchers in the UPV/EHU’s Planetary Sciences Group, in collaboration with astronomers from various countries, were able to observe Saturn’s northern polar region in detail once again and confirmed that the hexagon continued in place.

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  • After measuring the positions of the hexagon vertices with great precision, they determined that its movement remains extremely stable, and on the basis of the cloud movements, that the jet stream inside it remains unchanged. For this study the researchers used images taken from the Earth between 2008 and 2014; they used, among others, the astronomical cameras PlanetCam (developed by the Planetary Sciences Group itself) and Astralux, fitted to the telescopes of the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain); in addition, they used the very high resolution images obtained by t he Cassini spacecraft, which has been orbiting Saturn since 2004. New York Giants Jerseys

    Due to the tilt of approximately 27º of the planet Saturn, its polar atmosphere undergoes intense seasonable variations with long polar nights lasting over seven years, followed by a long period of 23 years of variable illumination. However, the seasonal variations do not affect the hexagon and its jet stream at all, so both are part of an extensive wave, deeply rooted in Saturn’s atmosphere. Fjallraven Kanken Kids UK The UPV/EHU researchers suggest that the hexagon and its stream are the manifestation of a “Rossby wave” similar to those that form in the mid-latitudes of the earth. On our planet the jet stream meanders from west to east and brings, associated with it, the system of areas of low pressure and anticyclones which we have been seeing regularly on weather maps.

    On Saturn, a hydrogen gas planet, ten times the size of the Earth, cold in its upper clouds, without a solid surface, and with an atmosphere as deep as that of an ocean, “the hexagonal wavy motion of the jet stream is expected to be propagated vertically and reveal to us aspects of the planet’s hidden atmosphere,” pointed out Agustín Sánchez-Lavega, Head of the Planetary Sciences research group. cheap jordans uk “The movement of the hexagon could therefore be linked to the depths of Saturn, and the rotation period of this structure, which, as we have been able to ascertain, is 10 hours, 39 minutes and 23 seconds, could be that of the planet itself,” he added.

    Radio Tagging Bees – For Science!

    Miniature radio tags, kind of like toll cards for cars, are being attached to the back of bees to help them survive the threat of exotic diseases.

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  • Five thousand tags are being fitted to bees in southern Tasmania. Justin Forsett Ravens Jerseys The information they generate will be used to learn more about bee movement and behaviour.

    CSIRO Science Leader Dr Paulo de Souza has been instrumental in developing the tiny radio frequency identification sensor. Yadier Molina Jersey He says the technology works because bees are social animals: “Because the communication range we have today is pretty short, we can read the data about 30 centimetres away. nike air max 1 pas cher So if we have an insect that passes a specific place that we can read the data, that will help us a lot.”

    Beekeeper Peter Norris is hopeful the technology can be used to eradicate the exotic Asian Honey Bee, found in Queensland. New Balance buty damskie “It’s fantastic for our industry, particularly if we can get to the point where we can take GPS readings.

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  • It would be a real breakthrough from a pollination point of view for working out pollination densities.

    “But probably one of the major things I’d like to see it used for is eradicating Apis cerana, which was an incursion in Cairns in 2007. Scarpe Kobe 11 Unfortunately it wasn’t eradicated and it’s now moved to a management situation. But with this chip, if we could trap Apis cerana at feeding stations, we could get GPS readings of where the nests are. Nike Air Max Flyknit Heren We would be in a position to eradicate it.”

    Dr de Souza says that, in the future, even smaller radio transmitters could be used to study Queensland fruit fly, an increasingly concerning issue in New Zealand.

    via ABC.

    Honey Found To Help Antibiotic Resistance

    Medical professionals sometimes use honey successfully as a topical dressing, but it could play a larger role in fighting infections, researchers told a meeting of American Chemical Society recently.

    “The unique property of honey lies in its ability to fight infection on multiple levels, making it more difficult for bacteria to develop resistance,” said study leader Susan M. Kenley Jansen Authentic Jersey Meschwitz, Ph.D. That is, it uses a combination of weapons, including hydrogen peroxide, acidity, osmotic effect, high sugar concentration and polyphenols — all of which actively kill bacterial cells, she explained. The osmotic effect, which is the result of the high sugar concentration in honey, draws water from the bacterial cells, dehydrating and killing them.

    In addition, several studies have shown that honey inhibits the formation of biofilms, or communities of slimy disease-causing bacteria, she said. Nike Air Max 2016 Dames Zwart “Honey may also disrupt quorum sensing, which weakens bacterial virulence, rendering the bacteria more susceptible to conventional antibiotics,” Meschwitz said. Nike Air Max 95 męskie Quorum sensing is the way bacteria communicate with one another, and may be involved in the formation of biofilms. nike scarpe italia In certain bacteria, this communication system also controls the release of toxins, which affects the bacteria’s pathogenicity, or their ability to cause disease.

    Meschwitz, who is with Salve Regina University in Newport, R.I., said another advantage of honey is that unlike conventional antibiotics, it doesn’t target the essential growth processes of bacteria. adidas ultra boost hombre The problem with this type of targeting, which is the basis of conventional antibiotics, is that it results in the bacteria building up resistance to the drugs.

    Honey is effective because it is filled with healthful polyphenols, or antioxidants, she said. buty Asics Męskie These include the phenolic acids, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ellagic acid, as well as many flavonoids. “Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the non-peroxide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of honey and the presence of honey phenolics,” she added. new balance 997 on sale A large number of laboratory and limited clinical studies have confirmed the broad-spectrum antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties of honey, according to Meschwitz.

    She said that her team also is finding that honey has antioxidant properties and is an effective antibacterial. Air Jordan 9 Retro “We have run standard antioxidant tests on honey to measure the level of antioxidant activity,” she explained. “We have separated and identified the various antioxidant polyphenol compounds. In our antibacterial studies, we have been testing honey’s activity against E.

    Bee Honey

    Honeybees Reveal That Evolution Is Stranger Than You Ever Realized

    Note: This article was first published in io9 on 3/6/14.

    Darwin’s idea of natural selection is simple. Good mutations are passed on, because the animals who have them will survive to reproduce. Philadelphia 76ers But how do you pass on those good mutations in honeybee colonies, where most bees are sterile workers who never have babies? A group of researchers decided to find out.

    York University biologist Amro Zayed worked with a team of Canadian and Saudi Arabian researchers to unravel a genetic mystery that has long intrigued evolutionary biologists. nike kd 9 pas cher Worker bees are the most important part of any bee colony, gathering food, building the hive, taking care of babies, and maintaining the temperature inside the hive at what Zayed calls a “balmy 33 degrees Celsius.” If a worker has a mutation that makes it better at finding food in a new region, evolutionary reason would predict that mutation ought to be passed along to the next generation of workers. But how can it be, if only the queen bee is having babies?

    In the 1960s, W.D. Hamilton first proposed a theoretical model that could explain how each generation of sterile bees contributed to the fitness of their species. The theory was called “kin selection,” and it suggests that non-reproducing animals still benefit when another member of their group is having babies. As the term “kin selection” suggests, a sterile bee is still helping natural selection along, even if it’s only by making it easier for her queen to lay eggs. After all, the queen is either mother or sister to every bee in her colony.

    For decades, kin selection was just a theory. New Balance Niño Recently, however, we’ve accumulated enough genetic information about honeybees that we’re able to analyze how they’re evolving at a DNA level. And a few years ago, Zayed and his colleagues wondered whether they could use genetic evidence to back up Hamilton’s fifty-year-old idea. First, they gathered 40 honeybee genomes from subspecies regions all over Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas. “One researcher even risked great danger to get a honeybee in Syria,” Zayed said.

    After an intensive analysis, the team discovered that there are certain regions of the honeybee genome that are undergoing rapid positive selection. That means they found several relatively new mutations that have spread quickly throughout honeybee subspecies because they are so useful. And nearly all of those mutations were associated with honeybee workers’ ability to adapt their behavior to new environments and manage the worker division of labor. Maglie Los Angeles Lakers Essentially, all the most rapidly-changing parts of the honeybee genomes were selecting for traits that gave advantages to those sterile workers.

    If you think about a bee colony, the queen bee is living in an almost lab-like environment. She’s fed and groomed by workers. The temperature in the colony is 33 degrees Celsius for most of her life. She’s in this benign environment, afforded by the actions of workers who collect food and nurse the brood and thermo-regulate the hive. Air Jordan 3 Uomo Through their behavior they bear brunt of changes in environment. They have to cope with changes in environment. New York Giants Jerseys And they deal with changes in the environment with changes in worker behavior.“This is the first time anyone has shown workers contributing to adaptation,” Zayed told io9 by phone from Ontario, Canada. And he said it makes perfect sense, considering that workers are the front line when it comes to the colony’s survival in the environment. But the queen doesn’t need to adapt as much, because her environment is always stable. Canotte Boston Celtics Zayed continued:

    And indeed, as Zayed’s team found, the DNA regions that are evolving the most rapidly in honeybees are responsible for worker behavior.

    Again, we have to ask, how are these good traits being passed on from one sterile generation to the next? The answer takes us back to kin selection. The better the workers are, the more likely their queen’s hive environment will remain stable and benign. Canotte Charlotte Hornet And that means she’s more likely to have more children, many of whom will also have the good mutations that made her workers so adaptable in the first place. nike air max pas cher Among those children will be future queens, who will carry those genes with them when they found new colonies and birth new generations of workers.

    This also helps explain why there is such a huge amount of variation in honeybee behavior from subspecies to subspecies — and even from colony to colony. Zayed pointed out that the famously aggressive behavior of African honeybees is a direct result of adapting to an environment full of predators like the honey badger who attack hives. In other parts of the world, such as Yemen, bees have adapted to be excellent at air conditioning their hives in the hot desert air. And in Japan, bees have used the “hot defensive bee ball” to combat deadly wasps. All of these behavior modifications are the result of rapid changes under the pressures of natural selection.

    As a result of Zayed and his colleagues’ work, published last month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, we have solid genetic evidence that even when animals don’t reproduce, they still contribute to the evolution of their species and their family lineage. Put another way, altruism pays off.

    Though humans are very different from social insects, there is still something poignant in the life cycles of honeybees for us city-dwelling Homo sapiens. It’s hard not to ponder the implications of those queens with their static, unchanging behavior inside the hive. Their evolution is entirely dependent on adaptable sisters and daughters, working in the dangerous world outside. And yet the workers can’t pass along the behaviors they’ve evolved without their queen. It sounds harmonious.

    Halloween Week: Help Scientists Battle Zombees

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Adrian Gonzalez Jersey Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Last year scientists from the San Francisco State University provided the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infected and eventually killed honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture.

    Scientists say the fly deposits its eggs into the bee’s abdomen, causing the insect to walk around in circles with no apparent sense of direction. The bee exhibits zombie-like behaviour, said lead investigator John Hafernik. Parasitised honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving the hive at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, the researchers confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species.

    Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Air Jordan 5 Uomo Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California’s Central Valley.

    To learn more about how the parasitic fly affects the bees’ behavior, the scientists have built a system to track the movements of infected bees in and out of a hive. cheap fjallraven kanken Each bee has a set of tiny radio frequency trackers — each no bigger than a fleck of glitter — attached to the top of its thorax. Tennis Nike The bees leave and return to the hive through a small tube outfitted with dual laser readers that interact with the individual trackers.

    Knowing exactly when bees leave–and whether they come back–is important for understanding how and when the parasites might cause the bees to abandon their hives. The original study found bees disoriented and dying at night, for instance, but the researchers aren’t sure whether the infected bees only leave their hives to fly in the dark. adidas cloudfoam hombre The researchers hope to capitalize on the interest in the bees with a citizen science project called ZomBee Watch.

    ZomBee Watch has three main goals. nike air max nederland 1. To determine where in North America the Zombie Fly Apocephalus borealis is parasitizing honey bees. Under Armour Curry One 2. To determine how often honey bees leave their hives at night, even if they are not parasitized by the Zombie Fly. 3. To engage citizen scientists in making a significant contribution to knowledge about honey bees and to become better observers of nature. fjallraven kanken mochilas If you live in the United States, they need your help finding out where honey bees are being parasitized by the Zombie Fly and how big a threat the fly is to honey bees. So far, the Zombie Fly has been found parasitizing honey bees in California and South Dakota.

    The Science Behind Ancient Honey

    In 1905 when archaeologist James Quibell uncovered the tomb of Yuya and Tjuya, the parents of 18th dynasty Egyptian Queen Tiye, who was Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III, among the items he discovered was a jar of honey. It was noted as still being liquid, and even still preserving its characteristic scent, despite being 3,300 years old. Stephen Piscotty Authentic Jersey

    So how can honey remain perfectly edible for thousands upon thousands of years, seemingly without an expiry date? The Smithsonian Magazine endeavoured to find out, and came up with a very interesting – and very complex – answer. asics gel pulse 7 męskie It all boils down to the sugar in the honey, sugar that contains very little water in its natural state, therefore providing an impossible environment for any external bacteria to live in.

    As Amina Harris, executive director of the Honey and Pollination Center at the Robert Mondavi Institute at Univeristy of California explains;

    Honey in its natural form is very low moisture. San Antonio Spurs Very few bacteria or microorganisms can survive in an environment like that, they just die. They’re smothered by it, essentially.

    It has a pH that falls between 3 and 4.5, approximately, and that acid will kill off almost anything that wants to grow there.

    So what is it that honey bees do to the honey that makes it so apparently everlasting? The answer is in the nectar. sac kanken pas cher This first material collected by bees to make honey is naturally very high in water–anywhere from 60-80%. Canotte Los Angeles Clippers But through the process of making honey, the bees play a large part in removing much of this moisture by flapping their wings to literally dry out the nectar. Asics Gel Lyte 5 damskie On top of the behavior, the chemical makeup of a bee’s stomach also plays a large part in honey’s resilience. Bees have an enzyme in their stomachs called glucose oxidase. New Balance 530 męskie When the bees regurgitate the nectar from their mouths into the combs to make honey, this enzyme mixes with the nectar, breaking it down into two by-products: gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then hydrogen peroxide goes in to work against all other organisms that could possibly grow.

    A jar of honey’s seal, it turns out, is the final factor that’s key to honey’s long shelf life, as exemplified by the storied millennia-old Egyptian specimens. C.J. Mosley Ravens Jerseys As Harris explains, ”As long as the lid stays on it and no water is added to it, honey will not go bad.

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  • As soon as you add water to it, it may go bad. Or if you open the lid, it may get more water in it and it may go bad.”

    We’re assuming by “bad” Harris means “ready to spread on our toast or have in our tea”. Adidas buty sklep We estimate that since our Raw & Unheated Honey is as pure as honey can get, with as little processing as possible, this is the honey in our range most likely to be able to retain all its goodness for the longest.

    Pollinator-Friendly Plants Put To The Test For Science

    You hear a lot in the news about the decline of bees, and it’s the kind of issue that is easy to assume we can do nothing about. Asics Gel Quantum 360 Dames But one simple way people can help is via their gardens, by growing ornamental plants that are also attractive to flower-visiting insects. fjallraven kanken pas cher Although individual gardens are relatively small, collectively they comprise a substantial area. If public parks can get in on the act then the collective positive effects could be potentially staggering.

    Which plant varieties are attractive to flower-visiting insects? Given the great public interest, many lists of recommended plants have recently been produced. For example, in 2011, the UK’s Royal Horticultural Society produced a Perfect for Pollinators list. But where did this information come from? On closer inspection, it appears that these lists are based largely on personal experiences, opinions and anecdotes.

    Now a study by the University of Sussex researchers has attempted to put these recommendations on a firmer scientific footing. Air Jordan 2 Retro Scientists planted an experimental garden of summer-flowering garden plants on the university campus. Asics Gel lyte 3 Heren Thirty-two varieties were compared, each in two patches of 1×1m, in 2011 and 2012. fjällräven kånken Laptop 13 All varieties were easy to purchase and considered attractive to humans. Throughout both summers they made repeated counts of the numbers of insects on each patch. As they were counted the insects were also identified into nine categories (honey bee, 4 sub-categories of bumblebees, other bees, hoverflies, butterflies & moths, other insects).

    The most simple and striking result was that garden plants vary enormously, approximately 100-fold, in their attractiveness to insect flower-visitors. The most numerous insects by far were bees which comprised over 84% of all insects seen. Bumblebees 47-62% and honey bees 26-32% were the most numerous, with all other bees only 3-5%. nike free 5.0 hombre Their results did lead them to make some horticultural recommendations – Among honey bees, it seems borago (borage) came out on top, with origanum and a variety of different species of lavender also performing well, while overall the least attractive flowering plant for insects was the geranium. Colt McCoy – Texas Longhorns Marjoram, the researchers say, was probably the best “all-rounder”, attracting honey bees, bumble bees, other bees, hover flies, and butterflies. The team put a number of varieties of lavender to the test and found that highly bred hybrids, including some with novel colours – such as white or pink – that have been carefully bred into the plants proved the most attractive to insects.

     

     

    Dr Nigel Raine, from the Royal Holloway University of London, commented that with bee populations declining across the world, “we can all give bees a helping hand by planting the right flowers to give them the nectar and pollen they need. This study highlights that it’s important for bee-friendly gardeners to choose what you plant with care. Washington Wizards Gardeners and town planners should think carefully about the mixture of flowers they plant to ensure food is available for a wide range of bees and other important insect pollinators. asics gel stratus mujer It’s also important to cater for the needs of the rarer species and provide food at times when there might be fewer wild flowers in bloom.”

    Flowers attractive to bees and other insects are by and large also attractive to humans, and are no harder to grow or more expensive than any others. nike air max femme pas cher Therefore, choosing insect-attractive varieties over less attractive varieties is a zero cost option, and is a practical and simple way of helping bees and other flower-visiting insects in your own garden.

    Flight of the Bumblebee Studied for Science

    <span style="font-family: georgia, adidas chaussures femme palatino;”>Everyone is familiar with Rimsky-Korsakov’s famous interlude, however scientists from Harvard University have been studying an actual flight of the bumblebee in an effort to work out how the insects manage to remain steady in adverse weather conditions. Dr Sridhar Ravi filmed bumblebees as they flew in a wind tunnel allowing him and his team to control the airflow the bees had to contend with.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Hogan Rebel palatino;”>Dr Ravi says “As we have all experienced, the wind speed and direction outdoors can be very variable, Nike Air Huarache [so] maintaining stable flight can be extremely challenging. The best micro air vehicles available today struggle to fly stably when there is even in a light breeze.”

    The team filmed the bees using high-speed cameras and replayed their flight in super slow motion, discovering how the insects adjusted their flight according to the airflow. Interestingly the footage revealed that the bees reduced their speed in unsteady winds, which seemed to allow them to expend more energy correcting their flight path.
    <span style="font-family: georgia, Billige Nike Sko palatino;”>“The bumblebees also seemed to be more susceptible to disturbances that pushed them sideways as opposed to up and down,” explained Dr Ravi. “The bees rolled considerably to change course and correct for the disturbances induced by the wind.”
    <span style="font-family: georgia, Garrett Richards Baseball Jersey palatino;”>
    <span style="font-family: georgia, adidas zx flux męskie palatino;”>Ravi says their research will enable them to design much more efficient robotic micro air vehicles that are faced with adverse and changeable weather conditions. Currently the smallest autonomous MAVs in use today are about 15cm, adidas yeezy heren and are mostly used for meteorological or military purposes such as the UK Military’s mini helicopter drones.
    <span style="font-family: georgia, nike pas cher palatino;”>
    <span style="font-family: georgia,

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  • palatino; font-size: x-small;”>via BBC

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

    Diesel Fumes Interfere with Honey Bees’ Sense of Smell

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers, and scientists from Britain’s University of Southampton have investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable.

    Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, they found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee’s foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide.

    The percentage of forager honeybees which, after learning the full synthetic floral blend, extended their proboscis (indicating recognition) when presented with the synthetic blend minus either α-farnesene (-αf), α-terpinene (-αt) or both chemicals (-both). Nike Seattle Seahawks jerseys

    “This could have serious detrimental effects on the number of honeybee colonies and pollination activity,” Tracey Newman, a neuroscientist who worked on the study, said. Guy Poppy, an ecology professor who worked with Newman, said that to be able to forage effectively, honeybees need to be able to learn and recognise plants – a process their results showed could be disrupted by the so-called NOx gases, particularly nitrogen dioxide, found in diesel exhaust and other pollution.

    Chemical odours are central to communication in insects and their interaction with the environment. A prime example of this is the floral odours that are produced by flowering plants to manipulate the behaviour of insects and facilitate pollination.

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  • Globally the economic value of pollination has been estimated at [euro]153 billion a year, with 70% of the world’s principal food crops relying upon pollination, equating to 35% of global food production. Clemson Tigers Pollinator populations are declining on a global scale and anthropogenic anthropogenic substances, such as synthetic insecticides, are implicated as key contributors to the reductions of both wild and managed pollinators.

    Air pollution is one of the most ubiquitous environmental human impacts, however its effects on honeybees are unknown. Honeybees have a sensitive sense of smell and an exceptional ability to learn and memorize new odours, enabling them to use floral odours to help locate, identify and recognise the flowers from which they forage. There is a huge diversity of floral odours, therefore any disruption to these blends could impact upon the ability of plants to communicate with their pollinators, which may have a negative impact on both parties.

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  • Theoretical models predict that anthropogenic emissions (including ozone, hydroxyl radicals and nitrate radicals) are likely to reduce the detection distances of plant emitted odours available to pollinators, and empirical data has demonstrated that such compounds can interrupt plant-to-plant odour communication.

    Despite advances in filtration technology and tighter regulations on airborne emissions, diesel exhaust remains a major environmental pollutant. nike pas cher Many countries have guidelines in place to limit the emission of toxic gases produced as a result of the combustion of diesel and other fossil fuel. Air Jordan For Sale Of these gases the NOx fraction is the most reactive and is known to have deleterious effects on both human health and plant growth.

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  • However the emissions limits for one of the NOxgases, nitrogen dioxide, are regularly exceeded especially in urban areas. Whilst there is an overall downward trend in nitrogen dioxide emission in Europe, it continues to be a significant environmental pollutant, particularly in countries undergoing rapid economic growth, such as China.

    Honeybees are known to use the whole range of chemicals found in a floral blend to discriminate between different blends, and this research indicates that some chemicals in a blend may be more important than others in this discrimination process. Nike Air Max 2016 Heren blauw Whilst these results are the outcome of an artificial manipulation of the odour blend, the fact that removal of such a minor constituent can have such a profound effect on the ability of honeybees to recognize a floral odour may have significant ramifications for the ability of honeybees to efficiently forage for floral resources and therefore provide pollination services.

    In nature honeybees use a combination of visual stimuli and floral odours to locate a flower for the first time. Honeybees associatively learn that a floral odour is concomitant with foraging success by gaining a reward of nectar whilst on the flower in the presence of high levels of floral odours. new balance shop firenze Learning a floral odour remotely from the flower is less likely, because it would require a honeybee to remember an odour that occurs at a time distinct from the reward. Degradation of an odour source by pollution is likely to be more pronounced at distance from the flower, where concentrations of the odours are lower. Foraging honeybees may then be incapable of recognizing that the floral odours it detects remote from flowers are those that it associates with reward. This could result in a greater dependence upon other senses critical for foraging behaviour, such as vision, to compensate for the reduction in olfactory stimuli.

    Disruption of odour communication by components of exhaust pollution could be detrimental to many insect species. Baylor Bears In the case of pollinator species, including the honeybee, these effects would have major economic and ecological impacts, particularly when in conjunction with other stressors detrimental to pollinator health.

    Giles Budge of Britain’s Food and Environment Research Agency said Newton’s study highlighted a fresh issue to add to the many problems facing insect pollinators. But he said that since the study was based in the laboratory, more research is needed to see if the problem is occurring in the wider environment.\

    via Nature.

    Not Just Black and Yellow: Bees Show Off Their True Colours

    You could almost be forgiven for thinking that there are two types of bee in the world; honey bees and bumblebees. Canotte Los Angeles Clippers Almost. Canotta Oklahoma City Thunder However, there are over 20,000 known species of bee, and of the 4,000 of those native to North America, only the minority bear the distinct yellow and black marking that makes them so recognisable. nike tn requin pas cher Now the full spectrum of bees’ stark beauty has been captured by photographer Sam Droege from the USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring program.

    Less is known about these more colourful varieties of bees, but many live solitary rather than hive-oriented lives, and their size can vary just as greatly as their colour scheme, with some as big as bumblebees, and others smaller than a grain of rice. Nike Air Huarache What they all share in common however, thanks to these amazing images by Droege, are some spectacularly vibrant colours. Canotta Dallas Mavericks Here’s a sample from Droege’s full portfolio.

    Augochlorella aurata – One of the most common bees in Eastern North America. Nike Air Max 2017 Heren rood A particular lover of open fields, they measure around 5mm.

    Augochloropsis-metallica – A little bigger, coming in at around 9mm, they range from Ontario in Canada, throughout the US and as south as Mexico and Panama.

    Agapostemon angelicus – A more recognisable abdomen, but the thorax is a shimmering blue-green. new balance 1980 zante roma Little is known about this one, but they are known to be fairly solitary and can change foraging habits to suit conditions.

    Hylaeus volatilis – A native species of Hawaiian bee found at mid elevations on East Maui. air max pas cher This species is particularly interesting in that it is a nest parasite of other native Hylaeus species.

    Anthophora affabilis – Again, very little is known of this species, with only a few solitary males observed.

    World’s 20,000th Species of Bee Identified

    When people think of bees, they usually think of the humble Bumble or Honey Bee, but in fact there are only around 250 species of the former, and an even smaller 10 species of the latter. Nike Air Max Thea Dames The vast majority of the other approximately 19,700 species of bees come in all shapes, sizes and colours, some of which we’ve mentioned before.

    Now an article published in Auckland by an Ontario-based researcher has identified 21 more, pushing the world’s total known bee species past the 20,000 mark. All the newly identified species belong to the genus Mexalictus, which are mostly found in high elevations between Arizona and Panama, asics gel nimbus mujer with some being discovered in Guatemala, Honduras, New Balance 1600 damskie and Nicaragua.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, nike air max 1 uomo palatino;”>Unlike your common or garden Honey or Bumble Bee, Nike Air Huarache Dames these new species are very rare, some only known to science due to the discovery of one specimen. New Balance 515 hombre Like most other bees found in the world, these new species are likely solitary and nest in the ground or in twig hollows, Nike Air Max 2017 Dames roze however no nests have yet been found. As the researcher Sheila Dumesh says, “Because their habitats are often imperilled from deforestation and climate change, finding them before they become extinct is a race against time.”

    <span style="font-family: georgia, chaussures asics homme pas cher palatino;”>Despite not being as well known to the general population as their honey-making cousins, many thousands of other bee species also pollinate plants and crops. York bee lab leader Professor Laurence Packer explains, “Documenting what these wild bee species are and what they do, as well as understanding their role in agriculture and our planet’s overall ecology is all extremely important.”

     

    ~ Mr B

    via York University.

    A Live Stream Of Honey Bees Rebuilding Their Hive Is More Hypnotic Than You’d Think

    Most people wouldn’t want to go near a beehive for fear of being stung.

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  • Now they don’t have to thanks to the efforts of Explore.org.

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  • The organisation which live streams the daily activities and behaviours of everything from beluga whales to puffins to even weedy sea dragons has turned its attention to the humble honey bee. Canotta Squadra USA

    Setting up two cameras, the team is capturing images from both the entrance to a hive that has been established inside a large hollow log, and the other actually streaming from inside the hive. lunette de soleil ray ban

    The best time to see them coming and going from the hive is between the hours of 6am to 9pm Central European Time (about 4pm to 7am New Zealand Standard Time), but even if it’s dark out, it is still fascinating to see them working away inside the hive at all hours. Nike Scarpe Italia

    You may notice that they seem to be working harder than usual ( well spotted!) That’s because the hive recently suffered a collapse. nike pas cher Not the kind of collapse normally associate with Colony Collapse Disorder; the bees didn’t disappear, but rather, the comb toppled over.

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  • The honey bees are now working their abdomens off to get the hive re-established and, as of writing this, they look to be doing a great job.

    From what we’ve seen so far, the camera positioned at the entrance to the hive doesn’t move at all, but nonetheless effectively captures the ceaseless hustle and bustle of the bees’ daily trips, taking off and landing as they collect pollen for the colony. New Balance Pas Cher But it’s the cameras inside the hive that is the most intriguing. I’ve had the stream open all day on my computer and have caught myself being hypnotised watching them go about their business inside, building new combs, protecting the queen, raising new generations of workers and drones, crawling around doing general maintenance, and of course producing honey.

    The hive is situated in the small town of Wall, Bavaria, Germany but now anyone from around the world can get a glimpse of live in the hive.

    Two Remote Scottish Isles To Become UK’s First Reserve For Honey Bees

    There are around 250 native species of bee in Britain but just a single honey bee – the Apis mellifera. The isles of Colonsay and Oronsay are currently home to around 50 colonies and have now been named in a new Scottish Government order to protect the species from cross-breeding and disease.

    The Bee Keeping (Colonsay and Oronsay) Order 2013 comes into force on 1 January and will make it an offence to keep any honeybees on the islands except Apis mellifera, whose hardiness allows them to survive the harsh climate of Scotland’s west coast.

    Beekeeper Andrew Abrahams has campaigned for the islands to be recognised as a sanctuary for the species.

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  • He began keeping bees on Colonsay 35 years ago, but the island has an even longer tradition as a haven for the black bee. Air Max 2017 Dames Its isolation and lack of an existing honeybee population saw it chosen as the site for an experimental breeding station for the native bee in 1941.

    Welcoming the new legislation, Abrahams said: “It’s the government’s acknowledgement that native bees should be conserved because they are much more suitable to our difficult environment, and the increasingly difficult environment global warming will bring us.”

    Most of Britain’s native honeybee species were wiped out in the early 20th century by the “Isle of Wight disease”, caused by a parasitic mite which spread throughout the country.

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  • A few isolated populations survived and formed the basis of apiaries set up by Abrahams in 1978.

    The biggest threat to bees kept in apiaries today is the deadly Varroa mite, which was first discovered in the UK in 1992 and has led to the virtual elimination of feral bee colonies in many areas. Adidas Scarpe Uomo Colonsay was chosen as a reserve because its bees are free from the disease and are genetically pure.

    The Scottish Government granted the order after a public consultation received overwhelming support.

    Nigel Southworth, New Balance 574 Pas Cher editor of the Scottish Beekeeper magazine, said: “This is great news for beekeeping, Asics Gel Lyte 5 męskie not only in Scotland, but the whole of the UK and beyond.

    “Congratulations to Andrew for achieving this and full credit to the Scottish Government for going ahead with the reserve.

    “At a time when honeybees are facing perhaps the greatest threat to their survival, this very positive move could be seen in future years to be one of the landmark decisions that helped not only to save this kind of bee, but triggered new initiatives to help both the honeybees and mankind.”

    Eric McArthur, vice president of Glasgow and District Beekeepers’ Association, said: “The need for this reserve has been a long time in coming.”

    McArthur added that the Colonsay and Oronsay reserve ranks in importance with Australia’s Kangaroo Island, which was designated as a reserve for the native bee of Italy, Apis mellifera ligustica, which was imported there in the 1880s. It is now believed to hold the last remaining pure stock of the species anywhere in the world.

    McArthur said: “The honey bees on Colonsay and Oronsay have the same significance for future Apis mellifera mellifera genetic purity as Kangaroo Island has for Apis mellifera lig­ustica.

    “These islands will become a Mecca not only for worldwide beekeepers interested in seeing the pure race Apis mellifera mellifera for themselves but also for scientists investigating the limits of genetic diversity in any closed and isolated population.

    “The importance of the Col­onsay and Oronsay honeybee reserve to Scotland’s economy cannot be stressed strongly enough and the islands should be developed as a Centre of Excellence for the black bee of Scotland.”

    Environment and climate change minister Paul Wheelhouse, who signed the order, said the new reserve fits in with wider work being undertaken on bee health in Scotland and would be significant in ensuring a bright future for black bees on the island.

    “The Bee Keeping Order illustrates how our non-native species legislation can be used to protect our native wildlife,” he said.

    “The order is a targeted measure to protect an important population of black bees on Colonsay from hybridisation with non-native bees.

    “We are working in close collaboration with the Scottish Beekeepers Association and Bee Farmers Association to deliver the ten-year Honeybee Health Strategy, Jordan 11 Pre-School which aims to achieve a sustainable and healthy population of honeybees for pollination and honey production in Scotland.”

    <span style="font-size: x-small; font-family: georgia, Fjällräven Kånken Ryggsäckar palatino;”>via The Scotsman. Images via flickr, Colonsay Information, and 2 Tortoises’ Escapade

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

    Less Urban Beekeeping, More Bee-Friendly Plants, say Scientists

    Over the last few years, the plight of the honey bee has had its profile raised in a number of ways. air max pas cher The importance of our food producing friends cannot be overstated, but one result of this public sentiment to help save them may actually end up doing them harm according to scientists. adidas gazelle uomo rosse The rise in popularity of urban beekeeping has seen many big names get in on the act and start up their own rooftop operations, among them the London Stock Exchange, the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, and even the White House.

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  • There’s even an entire honey company that relies solely on the efforts of urban beekeeping.

    However scientists from the Laboratory of Apiculture and Social Insects (LASI) at the University of Sussex have written in The Biologist that such a burgeoning practice may end up doing more harm than good. Kole Calhoun Baseball Jersey Major cities like London, New York and Toronto have brought about a 220% rise in beekeepers since 1999, while in five years alone beekeepers in Greater London tripled from 464 to 1,237. asics scarpe 2017 Professor Francis Ratnieks and Dr Karin Alton from LASI argue that such a huge increase could put a strain on the nectar and pollen supplies available to the bees in those areas.

    The scientists recognise that many urban properties set up rooftop hives in order to strengthen their ‘green’ image, or to help with team-building exercises, but they point out that simply introducing more bees is not the answer. nike air max pas cher With 75% of all the land in the UK being agricultural, there is a distinct lack of areas rich in wildflowers, so introducing a greater population of honey bees into urban areas without doing anything about their source of pollen could spell big problems.

    urban02

     

    “If a game park was short of food for elephants, you wouldn’t introduce more elephants, so why should we take this approach with bees?”

     

    Ratnieks explains; “Since World War Two the spread of intensive farming has greatly reduced areas rich in wildflowers, such as hay meadows. nike air max 2016 goedkoop

    “If the problem is not enough flowers, increasing the number of hives risks making that problem worse.

  • air max 2017 blu donna
  • The honey bee is just one of many insect species which feed on nectar and pollen.

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  • Having a high density of honey bee hives is not only bad for honey bees, but may also affect bumblebees and other species feeding on the same flowers.

    Furthermore, Ratnieks and Alton warn that with so many rooftop hives being set up in metropolitan areas, the rise in inexperienced beekeepers could end up spreading certain honey bee diseases, especially American foulbrood (AFB), a highly contagious bacterial infection of the honey bee larvae.

    Each new hive placed in London would need the equivalent of one hectare of borage or 8.3 hectares of lavender, so Alton suggests the honey bee cause would be better served if those concerned introduced more bee-friendly flowers and a welcoming habitat for them.

    Heather Honey Found To Help Beat Bacteria, To The Chagrin Of Manuka Producers

    Manuka honey has long been held up as a powerful natural antibiotic with healing properties but it seems it’s facing competition from bees on foreign shores. According to new research, Scottish heather honey is at least as effective for treating infections as its New Zealand-based cousin manuka.

    Dr Patrick Pollock, an equine surgeon from Glasgow University’s School of Veterinary Medicine who conducted the research, said the new findings suggest that the honey could be used for treating humans and animals. “A heather honey surprisingly came out fantastically well. It was actually killing bacteria at concentrations of less than 2%, which astounded us.”

    Up until now the most famous honey used for medical purposes was Manuka honey from New Zealand, but it is expensive for overseas importers. adidas gazelle damskie Dr Pollock says, “we are transporting honey all round the world and it is expensive to incorporate it into dressings. If we could show that other honeys were just as effective we could potentially open up this treatment to people and animals. Honey helps to promote healing, cleaning the wound and keeping it infection-free. If vets were able to use locally sourced, cheaper honey as a wound dressing, it would be very beneficial particularly in poorer countries.”

    The researchers took 29 honey products, including commercial medical grade honeys, supermarket honeys and honeys from local bee-keepers, and examined them for bacterial contamination before testing.

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  • Of the 29, 18 were found to contain bacteria that excluded them from the trial and the remaining 11 were tested against 10 equine bacterial isolates at concentrations varying from 2 percent to 16 percent. Eight of the honeys were effective against all the bacteria at concentrations ranging from 2 percent to 6 percent. Heather honey from the Inverness area was shown to be particularly effective – killing MRSA microbes and three other types of bacteria at concentrations of 2 percent. mochilas kanken baratas

    Pollock says, “honeys derived from one type of flower were shown to be the most effective, and while manuka is currently the only medical grade honey, the study reveals that other honeys may be just as suitable for such purposes. In future, it may be possible to identify honeys with activity against specific bacteria. asics gel lyte 3 uomo This would allow the clinician to select the most appropriate honey type for the infecting organism.”

    New Zealand manuka producers are understandably worried about this development, especially John Rawcliffe, head of the Unique Manuka Factor Honey Association, which represents New Zealand manuka honey producers. Tom Brady College Jerseys Honeys largely get their antimicrobial properties from the hydrogen peroxide they contain, but manuka is thought to benefit from other factors, including an as yet poorly understood phytochemical property and, or, the presence of methylglyoxal. Dennis Pitta Ravens Jerseys When comparing the history of wound treatment by manuka and heather honeys, Rawcliffe has warned against the claims of research on other honey, saying, “there will always be pretenders to the throne. Nike air max pas cher

    When you consider that Manuka honey commands prices 10 to 20 times higher than other types of honey because of its anti-bacterial properties, such concerns by other honey producers are only natural. The Manuka sector is estimated to earn New Zealand as much as $120 million a year, with it being arguably the world’s most studied honey. Maglie Washington Wizards The Glasgow University research showing the effectiveness of different honeys on equine “bacterial isolates” could therefore look likely to herald a new era in honey research as producers of other honey types seek to discover if they can also successfully market them for their medicinal properties.

    via BBC, Express, Fairfax NZ and NZ Herald.

    Fear of Predators Forces Honey Bees To Avoid Good Food Sources

    When most people think of honey bees they either consider them being horrible stinging death machines, or serently flittering from flower to flower collecting pollen amid a picturesque scene of pastoral beauty. Neither is very true, as the life of the honey bee is a difficult one, with many predators to stay away from.

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  • A new study from the scientific journal PLOS ONE suggests that such fear drives bees to avoid food sources closely associated with predators and, interestingly, makes colonies of bees less risk-tolerant than individual bees.

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  • In bees, fear is shown through foragers avoiding dangerous food sites, thereby reducing the fitness of pollinated plants. Vêtements Adidas Pas Cher Pas Cher However, it remains unclear how fear affects pollinators in a complex natural scenario involving multiple predator species and different patch qualities.

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  • James Nieh, a professor of biology at UC San Diego, worked with scientists at Yunnan Agricultural University in China to study the impact on foraging Asian honey bees of the monstrous-looking Asian Giant hornet, Vespa tropica, and a smaller hornet species known as Vespa velutina, which has invaded Europe and now poses a threat to European honey bees.

    predators2“This strategy of colonies collectively exhibiting significantly more caution than the riskier individual foragers may help honey bees exploit all of the available food sources, with some intrepid foragers visiting more dangerous food while the colony judiciously decides how to best allocate its foraging,” Nieh.

    “The Asian Giant hornets are dangerous, heavily armored predators,” says Ken Tan, the first author of the paper. “Bee colonies respond by forming balls of defending bees, encasing the hornet and, in some cases, cooking it to death with heat generated by the bees.”

    The researchers found that bees treated the bigger hornet species, which is four times more massive than the smaller species, as more dangerous. nike tn requin In a series of experiments, they presented bees with different combinations of safe and dangerous feeders—depending on their association with the larger or smaller hornets—containing varying concentrations of sucrose.

    “Bees avoided the dangerous feeders and preferred feeders that provided sweeter nectar,” says Nieh. “However, predators are clever and can focus on sweeter food, ones which bees prefer. So we also tested how bees would respond when sweeter food was also more dangerous. What we found was that the individual bees were more risk-tolerant. They avoided the giant hornet at the best food, but continued to visit the lower quality food with the smaller hornet.”

    The study demonstrated two classic effects of fear: changing prey foraging durations and space use. Fjällräven Kånken Salu Predator presence reduced the bees spent collecting food by 17–33% and elicited bee avoidance, decreasing visitation to dangerous feeders by. This falls into line with such avoidance techniques by other animals, such as Redshank birds which spend less time foraging in saltmarshes on days with high predation risk from sparrowhawks. Wild herbivores in the African savanna prefer low tree density areas where predators are easier to detect. Nike Air Max 2017 Dames blauw

    Aerial predators of honey bees, like hornets, can capture bees in flight and may therefore have a larger spatial influence than sit-and-wait predators, which are more localised.

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  • Such aerial insectivores may reduce plant fitness and mean colonies avoid what would otherwise be considered perfectly good food sources.

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  • This fascinating study showed that colony foraging, the result of mass recruitment, was more affected by fear than individual foraging choice. Mass recruitment is a key foraging strategy of highly social bees, which are also important pollinators in ecosystems around the world. Thus, understanding the emergent effects of fear at the superorganism level, how colonies differ in fearful behavior from their individual members, will provide a better understanding of how fear has shaped the evolution of bee foraging and how the effects of fear can be amplified at the colony level, thereby exerting a wider effect on a vital ecosystem service, pollination.

    via PLOS ONE and UCSD.