Two Remote Scottish Isles To Become UK’s First Reserve For Honey Bees

There are around 250 native species of bee in Britain but just a single honey bee – the Apis mellifera. The isles of Colonsay and Oronsay are currently home to around 50 colonies and have now been named in a new Scottish Government order to protect the species from cross-breeding and disease.

The Bee Keeping (Colonsay and Oronsay) Order 2013 comes into force on 1 January and will make it an offence to keep any honeybees on the islands except Apis mellifera, whose hardiness allows them to survive the harsh climate of Scotland’s west coast.

Beekeeper Andrew Abrahams has campaigned for the islands to be recognised as a sanctuary for the species.

  • NIKE AIR ZOOM VOMERO 11
  • He began keeping bees on Colonsay 35 years ago, but the island has an even longer tradition as a haven for the black bee. Air Max 2017 Dames Its isolation and lack of an existing honeybee population saw it chosen as the site for an experimental breeding station for the native bee in 1941.

    Welcoming the new legislation, Abrahams said: “It’s the government’s acknowledgement that native bees should be conserved because they are much more suitable to our difficult environment, and the increasingly difficult environment global warming will bring us.”

    Most of Britain’s native honeybee species were wiped out in the early 20th century by the “Isle of Wight disease”, caused by a parasitic mite which spread throughout the country.

  • air max 2017 grigio uomo
  • A few isolated populations survived and formed the basis of apiaries set up by Abrahams in 1978.

    The biggest threat to bees kept in apiaries today is the deadly Varroa mite, which was first discovered in the UK in 1992 and has led to the virtual elimination of feral bee colonies in many areas. Adidas Scarpe Uomo Colonsay was chosen as a reserve because its bees are free from the disease and are genetically pure.

    The Scottish Government granted the order after a public consultation received overwhelming support.

    Nigel Southworth, New Balance 574 Pas Cher editor of the Scottish Beekeeper magazine, said: “This is great news for beekeeping, Asics Gel Lyte 5 męskie not only in Scotland, but the whole of the UK and beyond.

    “Congratulations to Andrew for achieving this and full credit to the Scottish Government for going ahead with the reserve.

    “At a time when honeybees are facing perhaps the greatest threat to their survival, this very positive move could be seen in future years to be one of the landmark decisions that helped not only to save this kind of bee, but triggered new initiatives to help both the honeybees and mankind.”

    Eric McArthur, vice president of Glasgow and District Beekeepers’ Association, said: “The need for this reserve has been a long time in coming.”

    McArthur added that the Colonsay and Oronsay reserve ranks in importance with Australia’s Kangaroo Island, which was designated as a reserve for the native bee of Italy, Apis mellifera ligustica, which was imported there in the 1880s. It is now believed to hold the last remaining pure stock of the species anywhere in the world.

    McArthur said: “The honey bees on Colonsay and Oronsay have the same significance for future Apis mellifera mellifera genetic purity as Kangaroo Island has for Apis mellifera lig­ustica.

    “These islands will become a Mecca not only for worldwide beekeepers interested in seeing the pure race Apis mellifera mellifera for themselves but also for scientists investigating the limits of genetic diversity in any closed and isolated population.

    “The importance of the Col­onsay and Oronsay honeybee reserve to Scotland’s economy cannot be stressed strongly enough and the islands should be developed as a Centre of Excellence for the black bee of Scotland.”

    Environment and climate change minister Paul Wheelhouse, who signed the order, said the new reserve fits in with wider work being undertaken on bee health in Scotland and would be significant in ensuring a bright future for black bees on the island.

    “The Bee Keeping Order illustrates how our non-native species legislation can be used to protect our native wildlife,” he said.

    “The order is a targeted measure to protect an important population of black bees on Colonsay from hybridisation with non-native bees.

    “We are working in close collaboration with the Scottish Beekeepers Association and Bee Farmers Association to deliver the ten-year Honeybee Health Strategy, Jordan 11 Pre-School which aims to achieve a sustainable and healthy population of honeybees for pollination and honey production in Scotland.”

    <span style="font-size: x-small; font-family: georgia, Fjällräven Kånken Ryggsäckar palatino;”>via The Scotsman. Images via flickr, Colonsay Information, and 2 Tortoises’ Escapade

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

    Less Urban Beekeeping, More Bee-Friendly Plants, say Scientists

    Over the last few years, the plight of the honey bee has had its profile raised in a number of ways. air max pas cher The importance of our food producing friends cannot be overstated, but one result of this public sentiment to help save them may actually end up doing them harm according to scientists. adidas gazelle uomo rosse The rise in popularity of urban beekeeping has seen many big names get in on the act and start up their own rooftop operations, among them the London Stock Exchange, the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, and even the White House.

  • ULTRA BOOST Uncaged
  • There’s even an entire honey company that relies solely on the efforts of urban beekeeping.

    However scientists from the Laboratory of Apiculture and Social Insects (LASI) at the University of Sussex have written in The Biologist that such a burgeoning practice may end up doing more harm than good. Kole Calhoun Baseball Jersey Major cities like London, New York and Toronto have brought about a 220% rise in beekeepers since 1999, while in five years alone beekeepers in Greater London tripled from 464 to 1,237. asics scarpe 2017 Professor Francis Ratnieks and Dr Karin Alton from LASI argue that such a huge increase could put a strain on the nectar and pollen supplies available to the bees in those areas.

    The scientists recognise that many urban properties set up rooftop hives in order to strengthen their ‘green’ image, or to help with team-building exercises, but they point out that simply introducing more bees is not the answer. nike air max pas cher With 75% of all the land in the UK being agricultural, there is a distinct lack of areas rich in wildflowers, so introducing a greater population of honey bees into urban areas without doing anything about their source of pollen could spell big problems.

    urban02

     

    “If a game park was short of food for elephants, you wouldn’t introduce more elephants, so why should we take this approach with bees?”

     

    Ratnieks explains; “Since World War Two the spread of intensive farming has greatly reduced areas rich in wildflowers, such as hay meadows. nike air max 2016 goedkoop

    “If the problem is not enough flowers, increasing the number of hives risks making that problem worse.

  • air max 2017 blu donna
  • The honey bee is just one of many insect species which feed on nectar and pollen.

  • Jordan Vente Spizike
  • Having a high density of honey bee hives is not only bad for honey bees, but may also affect bumblebees and other species feeding on the same flowers.

    Furthermore, Ratnieks and Alton warn that with so many rooftop hives being set up in metropolitan areas, the rise in inexperienced beekeepers could end up spreading certain honey bee diseases, especially American foulbrood (AFB), a highly contagious bacterial infection of the honey bee larvae.

    Each new hive placed in London would need the equivalent of one hectare of borage or 8.3 hectares of lavender, so Alton suggests the honey bee cause would be better served if those concerned introduced more bee-friendly flowers and a welcoming habitat for them.

    Recipe: Brown Sugar Honey Marinated Salmon with Caramelized Pineapple Quinoa

    Summer is well and truly upon us, which means getting outside and enjoying the weather when it lasts. But you’ll want something delicious to come back inside for when the sun goes down and it’s time for dinner, and this recipe, while somewhat involved, will pay dividends in the taste department.

    Coming from Ambitious Kitchen, this delicious gluten free Summer meal is great if you want to impress your friends. The only potential downside is that the prep time may be disproportionate to the amount of time it takes to consume this delicacy.

    Ingredients
    For salmon:
    • 1 pound salmon
    • 1/4 cup packed brown sugar
    • 1 tablespoon Davidson’s Raw & Unheated Organic Honey
    • 1/2 cup reduced sodium soy sauce, gluten free if desired
    • 1/4 cup fresh pineapple juice
    • 1 teaspoon dijon mustard
    • 1 teaspoon toasted sesame oil
    • 1 tablespoon olive oil
    • 1 teaspoon freshly grated ginger
    • 2 cloves garlic, finely minced
    • 1 teaspoon red chili pepper flakes, if desired
    • 1/2 of a whole pineapple, peeled, cored, and cut into small chunks (so you don’t have to cut later)

    For quinoa:

    • 3/4 cup uncooked organic quinoa
    • 1 cup coconut milk
    • 1/2 cup water
    • 1/4 cup diced red onion
    • 1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro
    • Fresh limes to squeeze, if desired
    • 1/4 cup toasted sliced almonds, for topping
    Directions
    1. In a large bowl whisk together the marinade ingredients: brown sugar, honey, soy sauce, pineapple juice, mustard, sesame and olive oil, ginger, garlic and red pepper flakes if desired. Place salmon in large zip lock bag and add marinade. Asics Pas Cher Place in refrigerator for up to 8 hours but at least 1 hour. You can also marinade it in a baking pan.
    2. Preheat oven to 200 degree C (about 400F). Spray baking pan with nonstick cooking spray.
    3. Air Yeezy Vendre
    4. Remove salmon from zip lock bag and place skin side down on large baking pan lined with foil. Yadier Molina Authentic Jersey Line pineapple next to salmon and brush leftover marinade on salmon and pineapple. chaussures nike Sprinkle with a little bit of extra brown sugar for extra caramelization. Bake for 15-20 minutes or until salmon easily flakes with fork. It is best to broil the salmon for a minute or two at the end to get an additional caramelisation on top.

    5. Nike Air Max 2017 Uomo Nere
    6. Just be sure not to dry out your fish! 18 minutes is usually perfect timing! *See notes for additional information on cooking times.

    7. While salmon is cooking, prepare quinoa. A.J. McCarron Alabama Football Jerseys Bring water and coconut milk to a boil in a medium saucepan. Reduce heat to low; add quinoa and cover; simmering until all liquid is absorbed. Adam Wainwright Jersey Remove from heat and let stand another 5-10 minutes. Air Flight 89 Fluff the quinoa with a fork and set aside. Add in red onion and cilantro to quinoa. Adidas ZX Flux Heren Once salmon is finished cooking, remove pineapple from baking sheet and fold into quinoa. Season with salt and lime juice to taste.
    8. Spoon pineapple quinoa evenly into 4 bowls or plates. Cut salmon into desired serving sizes and serve with quinoa. Aaron Murray Jerseys Garnish with a tablespoon or two of toasted almonds. Drizzle with extra honey if desired.

    *Notes
    Salmon is very sensitive and can dry out easily if overcooked, so make sure you watch your fish! For every inch of thickness of the salmon, generally it takes about 10 minutes to cook.
    Usually salmon fillets are about 1 1/2 inches thick. Preparing quinoa ahead of time makes this dish even easier.

    Heather Honey Found To Help Beat Bacteria, To The Chagrin Of Manuka Producers

    Manuka honey has long been held up as a powerful natural antibiotic with healing properties but it seems it’s facing competition from bees on foreign shores. According to new research, Scottish heather honey is at least as effective for treating infections as its New Zealand-based cousin manuka.

    Dr Patrick Pollock, an equine surgeon from Glasgow University’s School of Veterinary Medicine who conducted the research, said the new findings suggest that the honey could be used for treating humans and animals. “A heather honey surprisingly came out fantastically well. It was actually killing bacteria at concentrations of less than 2%, which astounded us.”

    Up until now the most famous honey used for medical purposes was Manuka honey from New Zealand, but it is expensive for overseas importers. adidas gazelle damskie Dr Pollock says, “we are transporting honey all round the world and it is expensive to incorporate it into dressings. If we could show that other honeys were just as effective we could potentially open up this treatment to people and animals. Honey helps to promote healing, cleaning the wound and keeping it infection-free. If vets were able to use locally sourced, cheaper honey as a wound dressing, it would be very beneficial particularly in poorer countries.”

    The researchers took 29 honey products, including commercial medical grade honeys, supermarket honeys and honeys from local bee-keepers, and examined them for bacterial contamination before testing.

  • Nike Free 5.0 Dames zwart
  • Of the 29, 18 were found to contain bacteria that excluded them from the trial and the remaining 11 were tested against 10 equine bacterial isolates at concentrations varying from 2 percent to 16 percent. Eight of the honeys were effective against all the bacteria at concentrations ranging from 2 percent to 6 percent. Heather honey from the Inverness area was shown to be particularly effective – killing MRSA microbes and three other types of bacteria at concentrations of 2 percent. mochilas kanken baratas

    Pollock says, “honeys derived from one type of flower were shown to be the most effective, and while manuka is currently the only medical grade honey, the study reveals that other honeys may be just as suitable for such purposes. In future, it may be possible to identify honeys with activity against specific bacteria. asics gel lyte 3 uomo This would allow the clinician to select the most appropriate honey type for the infecting organism.”

    New Zealand manuka producers are understandably worried about this development, especially John Rawcliffe, head of the Unique Manuka Factor Honey Association, which represents New Zealand manuka honey producers. Tom Brady College Jerseys Honeys largely get their antimicrobial properties from the hydrogen peroxide they contain, but manuka is thought to benefit from other factors, including an as yet poorly understood phytochemical property and, or, the presence of methylglyoxal. Dennis Pitta Ravens Jerseys When comparing the history of wound treatment by manuka and heather honeys, Rawcliffe has warned against the claims of research on other honey, saying, “there will always be pretenders to the throne. Nike air max pas cher

    When you consider that Manuka honey commands prices 10 to 20 times higher than other types of honey because of its anti-bacterial properties, such concerns by other honey producers are only natural. The Manuka sector is estimated to earn New Zealand as much as $120 million a year, with it being arguably the world’s most studied honey. Maglie Washington Wizards The Glasgow University research showing the effectiveness of different honeys on equine “bacterial isolates” could therefore look likely to herald a new era in honey research as producers of other honey types seek to discover if they can also successfully market them for their medicinal properties.

    via BBC, Express, Fairfax NZ and NZ Herald.

    Save The Bees Campaign Takes To Kickstarter For Help

    <span style="font-family: georgia, asics gel nimbus donna palatino;”>Kickstarter, the crowd funding website that has helped get all manner of creative projects off the ground, from new technologies to movies to video games to even video game consoles, has now turned its attention to helping save honeybees. The Save the Honey Bees Project in Dallas-Forth Worth, Air Jordan 4 Retro Texas aims to raise $6,000 in order to gather information about bee populations kept by beekeepers using off-the-shelf technology and electronic sensors.

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is a much bigger problem in the United States than it is here in New Zealand, so the project’s founder, Barry Litherland, hopes that the information gathered from the technologically advanced beehives he plans to set up will go some way to understanding the problem and preventing it from getting any worse.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Womens Air Jordan 5 palatino;”>When the hives are assembled, they will be outfitted with a bee counter at the hive entrance and at least one temperature and humidity sensor inside the hive. Each hive will have a computer attached to it to control and monitor the sensors, Authentic UGA Jersey store this data, and transfer it to the project website and other test equipment.

    As Litherland explains;

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

  • ADIDAS Yeezy Boost 350 V2
  • palatino;”>The sensor data will be helpful in characterizing bee behavior during both normal and environmentally stressed situation.

  • Asics Gel Lyte 5 Donna Rosso
  • For instance, the sensors should be able to show that the bees respond to the presence of the beekeeper and his/her smoker during visits to check the hive health and honey production. My hope is that we might learn a few new nuances about bees that will assist in nursing the mega-population back to a thriving species.

    Barry admits that his project is currently small-scale, Denver Nuggets but if it’s a success then there would be little reason for it not to expand in the future. He also makes a point of mentioning that everything he is putting together is open source, meaning that others can learn from and possibly even improve upon his work.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Nike Air Max 2017 Dames palatino;”>So let’s hope Barry is successful that people in the area and beyond get behind the project.

  • AJ McCarron Alabama Jersey
  • Just imagine the data that could be collected if this kind of project took off in urban and suburban areas all across the United States.

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

  • Air Max 2017 Donna Blu
  • palatino;”>~ Mr B

     

    <span style="font-size: small; font-family: georgia,

    Fear of Predators Forces Honey Bees To Avoid Good Food Sources

    When most people think of honey bees they either consider them being horrible stinging death machines, or serently flittering from flower to flower collecting pollen amid a picturesque scene of pastoral beauty. Neither is very true, as the life of the honey bee is a difficult one, with many predators to stay away from.

  • FREE 5.0
  • A new study from the scientific journal PLOS ONE suggests that such fear drives bees to avoid food sources closely associated with predators and, interestingly, makes colonies of bees less risk-tolerant than individual bees.

  • Chaussures Femme Air Jordan
  • In bees, fear is shown through foragers avoiding dangerous food sites, thereby reducing the fitness of pollinated plants. Vêtements Adidas Pas Cher Pas Cher However, it remains unclear how fear affects pollinators in a complex natural scenario involving multiple predator species and different patch qualities.

  • Nike Air Max 90 Heren groen
  • James Nieh, a professor of biology at UC San Diego, worked with scientists at Yunnan Agricultural University in China to study the impact on foraging Asian honey bees of the monstrous-looking Asian Giant hornet, Vespa tropica, and a smaller hornet species known as Vespa velutina, which has invaded Europe and now poses a threat to European honey bees.

    predators2“This strategy of colonies collectively exhibiting significantly more caution than the riskier individual foragers may help honey bees exploit all of the available food sources, with some intrepid foragers visiting more dangerous food while the colony judiciously decides how to best allocate its foraging,” Nieh.

    “The Asian Giant hornets are dangerous, heavily armored predators,” says Ken Tan, the first author of the paper. “Bee colonies respond by forming balls of defending bees, encasing the hornet and, in some cases, cooking it to death with heat generated by the bees.”

    The researchers found that bees treated the bigger hornet species, which is four times more massive than the smaller species, as more dangerous. nike tn requin In a series of experiments, they presented bees with different combinations of safe and dangerous feeders—depending on their association with the larger or smaller hornets—containing varying concentrations of sucrose.

    “Bees avoided the dangerous feeders and preferred feeders that provided sweeter nectar,” says Nieh. “However, predators are clever and can focus on sweeter food, ones which bees prefer. So we also tested how bees would respond when sweeter food was also more dangerous. What we found was that the individual bees were more risk-tolerant. They avoided the giant hornet at the best food, but continued to visit the lower quality food with the smaller hornet.”

    The study demonstrated two classic effects of fear: changing prey foraging durations and space use. Fjällräven Kånken Salu Predator presence reduced the bees spent collecting food by 17–33% and elicited bee avoidance, decreasing visitation to dangerous feeders by. This falls into line with such avoidance techniques by other animals, such as Redshank birds which spend less time foraging in saltmarshes on days with high predation risk from sparrowhawks. Wild herbivores in the African savanna prefer low tree density areas where predators are easier to detect. Nike Air Max 2017 Dames blauw

    Aerial predators of honey bees, like hornets, can capture bees in flight and may therefore have a larger spatial influence than sit-and-wait predators, which are more localised.

  • Air Jordan 8 Homme
  • Such aerial insectivores may reduce plant fitness and mean colonies avoid what would otherwise be considered perfectly good food sources.

  • Nike Air Max Thea Dames beige
  • This fascinating study showed that colony foraging, the result of mass recruitment, was more affected by fear than individual foraging choice. Mass recruitment is a key foraging strategy of highly social bees, which are also important pollinators in ecosystems around the world. Thus, understanding the emergent effects of fear at the superorganism level, how colonies differ in fearful behavior from their individual members, will provide a better understanding of how fear has shaped the evolution of bee foraging and how the effects of fear can be amplified at the colony level, thereby exerting a wider effect on a vital ecosystem service, pollination.

    via PLOS ONE and UCSD.

    New Research Shows Queenless Bees Stick Together

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Nike Air Max 2017 Heren groen palatino;”>When a honey bee colony loses its queen, Canotta NBA researchers at the University of Illinois and Macquarie University in NSW, Australia have found that the rest of the hive still retains its altruistic behaviour, cooperating with each other and remaining selfless workers right up until that colony eventually fails. Illinois Uni’s Department of Entomology even discovered that worker bees will develop their ovaries and produce male offspring if a queen is absent.

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

  • Nike Air Huarache Donna
  • palatino;”>As Dr Andrew Barron from Macquarie University notes; “Although selfish behaviour did increase, we saw that altruism did not decrease. Fjällräven Kånken The colonies effectively became worker communes – collective societies where bees became generalists, maintaining and defending the colony together, to the end.”

    Kin selection theory dictates that altruistic behaviour is based on the number of offspring produced compared to the number an individual can produce by supporting others.

  • Air Max 90 Pas Cher
  • The theory predicts that the degree of altruism in queenless colonies should be reduced because the relatedness of workers to a hivemate’s offspring is less in queenless colonies than it is to the daughters of the queen in queenright colonies.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, asics donna palatino;”>However the study found queenless bees generalised their tasks more and had a greatly reduced individual specialisation, with workers sharing personal reproduction, social foraging, and defence tasks for the colony. This resulted in laying workers also producing larger wax glands, showing metabolic investments in both colony maintenance and personal reproduction. Adidas Goedkoop

    The researchers say the social structure of such a queenless colony is similar to certain species of bees of a more primitive social structure, Canotte San Antonio Spurs thereby giving a unique snapshot into what colonies looked liked before the role of the queen evolved to take its place as the most successful organisational structure for colonies.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Fjallraven Kanken Mini palatino;”>~ Mr B

     

    <span style="font-size: x-small; font-family: georgia,

    Farewell to Our Manager and Founder of Apis Mellifera Robert Davidson

    We at The Apiary are sad to say that my Grandfather Mr Davidson passed away on 27th July at the ripe old age of 82, new balance store buenos aires he had surprised doctors countless times for living as long as he did with terminal cancer (something to do with smoking since the age of 16 I think) but he finally went peacefully with his family at his side in Timaru.

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

  • AIR ZOOM VOMERO 12
  • palatino;”>Mr Davidson was a typical genius if there is such a thing; always full of new ideas schemes to rope people into, all in the name of science, Nike Air Max 2017 Dames zwart curiosity and discovery. His children, grandchildren and great grandchildren are lucky enough to be left with this legacy of curiosity and the insatiable need to tinker with things, observe, Canotta Charlotte Hornets improve upon, and challenge the status quo.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Canotte Selección de USA palatino;”>He was also a man full of stories about his time as a deer culler in the mountains of the South Island of NZ, the adventures he got up to and near misses that only a level headed man of his intelligence could have found a way through in many cases. I’ve no doubt this has contributed a lot to the tendency of his descendents to look at a dangerous or challenging situation and approach it more as a problem to be solved than something to be afraid of or avoided.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Goedkope Nike Air Max 90 palatino;”>Many adventures and interesting times have certainly been had as a result of the inspirational nature and endless curiosity of Mr Davidson and he will definitely be missed by those who knew him.

    Attending his funeral on Wednesday also brought home just how many people in the community here are so thankful for his work in developing the health care range we sell, with many coming to show their appreciation for his friendly and forthcoming nature while they were going through difficult times, and for the products they believed helped them to overcome their illnesses.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, nike air max pas cher palatino;”>Everyone who knew Mr Robert Davidson will have something deeply personal and unique to keep with them after his passing and he will certainly not be forgotten by friends, Stephen Piscotty Jersey family, colleagues or customers. If you have a memory of Robert or a story of your own then we’d love to hear it, nike air max 2017 femme blanche so feel free to get in touch and share your thoughts on our departed proprietor.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, New Balance 997 damskie palatino;”>So here’s to Robert, a remarkable man who’s just starting out on the next great adventure!

    ~Mrs B

     

    <span style="font-family: georgia,

    New Zealand Post Commemorates the Humble Honey Bee

    There’s a reason the saying “busy as a bee” exists, and now New Zealand Post has commemorated the country’s hardest workers, our honey bees.

    In 1913 regional groups of beekeepers formed the National Beekeepers Association of New Zealand, so to celebrate their centenary, New Zealand Post has released six commemorative stamps, which highlight the process of making honey; from bees pollinating the plants through to the production of sweet nectar.

    According to the NBA, honey bees contribute about $5.1billion to New Zealand’s economy, attributable to pollination by honey bees, domestic honey sales and exports, beeswax and exported honey bees. Their value really can’t be understated, and without them we wouldn’t have access to half the foods we do in the supermarket. 

    Ahead of next month’s Bee Aware Month campaign, there couldn’t be a more perfect commemoration of our hard working little food providers. The stamps can be bought from the New Zealand Post website.

    ~Mr B

    Images via NZ Post.