Flight of the Bumblebee Studied for Science

<span style="font-family: georgia, adidas chaussures femme palatino;”>Everyone is familiar with Rimsky-Korsakov’s famous interlude, however scientists from Harvard University have been studying an actual flight of the bumblebee in an effort to work out how the insects manage to remain steady in adverse weather conditions. Dr Sridhar Ravi filmed bumblebees as they flew in a wind tunnel allowing him and his team to control the airflow the bees had to contend with.

<span style="font-family: georgia, Hogan Rebel palatino;”>Dr Ravi says “As we have all experienced, the wind speed and direction outdoors can be very variable, Nike Air Huarache [so] maintaining stable flight can be extremely challenging. The best micro air vehicles available today struggle to fly stably when there is even in a light breeze.”

The team filmed the bees using high-speed cameras and replayed their flight in super slow motion, discovering how the insects adjusted their flight according to the airflow. Interestingly the footage revealed that the bees reduced their speed in unsteady winds, which seemed to allow them to expend more energy correcting their flight path.
<span style="font-family: georgia, Billige Nike Sko palatino;”>“The bumblebees also seemed to be more susceptible to disturbances that pushed them sideways as opposed to up and down,” explained Dr Ravi. “The bees rolled considerably to change course and correct for the disturbances induced by the wind.”
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<span style="font-family: georgia, adidas zx flux męskie palatino;”>Ravi says their research will enable them to design much more efficient robotic micro air vehicles that are faced with adverse and changeable weather conditions. Currently the smallest autonomous MAVs in use today are about 15cm, adidas yeezy heren and are mostly used for meteorological or military purposes such as the UK Military’s mini helicopter drones.
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  • palatino; font-size: x-small;”>via BBC

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    Diesel Fumes Interfere with Honey Bees’ Sense of Smell

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers, and scientists from Britain’s University of Southampton have investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable.

    Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, they found that at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee’s foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they provide.

    The percentage of forager honeybees which, after learning the full synthetic floral blend, extended their proboscis (indicating recognition) when presented with the synthetic blend minus either α-farnesene (-αf), α-terpinene (-αt) or both chemicals (-both). Nike Seattle Seahawks jerseys

    “This could have serious detrimental effects on the number of honeybee colonies and pollination activity,” Tracey Newman, a neuroscientist who worked on the study, said. Guy Poppy, an ecology professor who worked with Newman, said that to be able to forage effectively, honeybees need to be able to learn and recognise plants – a process their results showed could be disrupted by the so-called NOx gases, particularly nitrogen dioxide, found in diesel exhaust and other pollution.

    Chemical odours are central to communication in insects and their interaction with the environment. A prime example of this is the floral odours that are produced by flowering plants to manipulate the behaviour of insects and facilitate pollination.

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  • Globally the economic value of pollination has been estimated at [euro]153 billion a year, with 70% of the world’s principal food crops relying upon pollination, equating to 35% of global food production. Clemson Tigers Pollinator populations are declining on a global scale and anthropogenic anthropogenic substances, such as synthetic insecticides, are implicated as key contributors to the reductions of both wild and managed pollinators.

    Air pollution is one of the most ubiquitous environmental human impacts, however its effects on honeybees are unknown. Honeybees have a sensitive sense of smell and an exceptional ability to learn and memorize new odours, enabling them to use floral odours to help locate, identify and recognise the flowers from which they forage. There is a huge diversity of floral odours, therefore any disruption to these blends could impact upon the ability of plants to communicate with their pollinators, which may have a negative impact on both parties.

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  • Theoretical models predict that anthropogenic emissions (including ozone, hydroxyl radicals and nitrate radicals) are likely to reduce the detection distances of plant emitted odours available to pollinators, and empirical data has demonstrated that such compounds can interrupt plant-to-plant odour communication.

    Despite advances in filtration technology and tighter regulations on airborne emissions, diesel exhaust remains a major environmental pollutant. nike pas cher Many countries have guidelines in place to limit the emission of toxic gases produced as a result of the combustion of diesel and other fossil fuel. Air Jordan For Sale Of these gases the NOx fraction is the most reactive and is known to have deleterious effects on both human health and plant growth.

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  • However the emissions limits for one of the NOxgases, nitrogen dioxide, are regularly exceeded especially in urban areas. Whilst there is an overall downward trend in nitrogen dioxide emission in Europe, it continues to be a significant environmental pollutant, particularly in countries undergoing rapid economic growth, such as China.

    Honeybees are known to use the whole range of chemicals found in a floral blend to discriminate between different blends, and this research indicates that some chemicals in a blend may be more important than others in this discrimination process. Nike Air Max 2016 Heren blauw Whilst these results are the outcome of an artificial manipulation of the odour blend, the fact that removal of such a minor constituent can have such a profound effect on the ability of honeybees to recognize a floral odour may have significant ramifications for the ability of honeybees to efficiently forage for floral resources and therefore provide pollination services.

    In nature honeybees use a combination of visual stimuli and floral odours to locate a flower for the first time. Honeybees associatively learn that a floral odour is concomitant with foraging success by gaining a reward of nectar whilst on the flower in the presence of high levels of floral odours. new balance shop firenze Learning a floral odour remotely from the flower is less likely, because it would require a honeybee to remember an odour that occurs at a time distinct from the reward. Degradation of an odour source by pollution is likely to be more pronounced at distance from the flower, where concentrations of the odours are lower. Foraging honeybees may then be incapable of recognizing that the floral odours it detects remote from flowers are those that it associates with reward. This could result in a greater dependence upon other senses critical for foraging behaviour, such as vision, to compensate for the reduction in olfactory stimuli.

    Disruption of odour communication by components of exhaust pollution could be detrimental to many insect species. Baylor Bears In the case of pollinator species, including the honeybee, these effects would have major economic and ecological impacts, particularly when in conjunction with other stressors detrimental to pollinator health.

    Giles Budge of Britain’s Food and Environment Research Agency said Newton’s study highlighted a fresh issue to add to the many problems facing insect pollinators. But he said that since the study was based in the laboratory, more research is needed to see if the problem is occurring in the wider environment.\

    via Nature.

    Not Just Black and Yellow: Bees Show Off Their True Colours

    You could almost be forgiven for thinking that there are two types of bee in the world; honey bees and bumblebees. Canotte Los Angeles Clippers Almost. Canotta Oklahoma City Thunder However, there are over 20,000 known species of bee, and of the 4,000 of those native to North America, only the minority bear the distinct yellow and black marking that makes them so recognisable. nike tn requin pas cher Now the full spectrum of bees’ stark beauty has been captured by photographer Sam Droege from the USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring program.

    Less is known about these more colourful varieties of bees, but many live solitary rather than hive-oriented lives, and their size can vary just as greatly as their colour scheme, with some as big as bumblebees, and others smaller than a grain of rice. Nike Air Huarache What they all share in common however, thanks to these amazing images by Droege, are some spectacularly vibrant colours. Canotta Dallas Mavericks Here’s a sample from Droege’s full portfolio.

    Augochlorella aurata – One of the most common bees in Eastern North America. Nike Air Max 2017 Heren rood A particular lover of open fields, they measure around 5mm.

    Augochloropsis-metallica – A little bigger, coming in at around 9mm, they range from Ontario in Canada, throughout the US and as south as Mexico and Panama.

    Agapostemon angelicus – A more recognisable abdomen, but the thorax is a shimmering blue-green. new balance 1980 zante roma Little is known about this one, but they are known to be fairly solitary and can change foraging habits to suit conditions.

    Hylaeus volatilis – A native species of Hawaiian bee found at mid elevations on East Maui. air max pas cher This species is particularly interesting in that it is a nest parasite of other native Hylaeus species.

    Anthophora affabilis – Again, very little is known of this species, with only a few solitary males observed.

    World’s 20,000th Species of Bee Identified

    When people think of bees, they usually think of the humble Bumble or Honey Bee, but in fact there are only around 250 species of the former, and an even smaller 10 species of the latter. Nike Air Max Thea Dames The vast majority of the other approximately 19,700 species of bees come in all shapes, sizes and colours, some of which we’ve mentioned before.

    Now an article published in Auckland by an Ontario-based researcher has identified 21 more, pushing the world’s total known bee species past the 20,000 mark. All the newly identified species belong to the genus Mexalictus, which are mostly found in high elevations between Arizona and Panama, asics gel nimbus mujer with some being discovered in Guatemala, Honduras, New Balance 1600 damskie and Nicaragua.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, nike air max 1 uomo palatino;”>Unlike your common or garden Honey or Bumble Bee, Nike Air Huarache Dames these new species are very rare, some only known to science due to the discovery of one specimen. New Balance 515 hombre Like most other bees found in the world, these new species are likely solitary and nest in the ground or in twig hollows, Nike Air Max 2017 Dames roze however no nests have yet been found. As the researcher Sheila Dumesh says, “Because their habitats are often imperilled from deforestation and climate change, finding them before they become extinct is a race against time.”

    <span style="font-family: georgia, chaussures asics homme pas cher palatino;”>Despite not being as well known to the general population as their honey-making cousins, many thousands of other bee species also pollinate plants and crops. York bee lab leader Professor Laurence Packer explains, “Documenting what these wild bee species are and what they do, as well as understanding their role in agriculture and our planet’s overall ecology is all extremely important.”

     

    ~ Mr B

    via York University.

    Homemade Honey Mustard In A Hurry

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Air Jordan 9 palatino;”>The great thing about honey mustard sauce is that it is so versatile. Anything that works equally well as a dipping sauce for some homemade chips or burgers, or as an accompaniment to a more substantial gourmet meal is the perfect thing to have on hand when you’re hungry.

    This quick little recipe will take you no time at all to throw together,

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  • but will last as long as you need,

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  • and satisfy a whole array of meals. It goes especially well with chicken tenders, Nike Air Max 2016 Heren groen barbecue ribs, Air Jordan 5 Retro and is perfect as a salad dressing.

     

     

     

     

    1/2 cup of Dijon mustard

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  • palatino;”>1/4 cup Davidson’s Raw and Unheated Organic Honey

    2 tablespoons of olive oil

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Nike Air Max 2016 damskie palatino;”>Some ground pepper to taste

    <span style="font-family: georgia, nike air max dame palatino;”>Mix it all together thoroughly in a bowl and enjoy straight away!

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  • palatino; font-size: x-small;”>Images via flickr

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    A Live Stream Of Honey Bees Rebuilding Their Hive Is More Hypnotic Than You’d Think

    Most people wouldn’t want to go near a beehive for fear of being stung.

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  • Now they don’t have to thanks to the efforts of Explore.org.

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  • The organisation which live streams the daily activities and behaviours of everything from beluga whales to puffins to even weedy sea dragons has turned its attention to the humble honey bee. Canotta Squadra USA

    Setting up two cameras, the team is capturing images from both the entrance to a hive that has been established inside a large hollow log, and the other actually streaming from inside the hive. lunette de soleil ray ban

    The best time to see them coming and going from the hive is between the hours of 6am to 9pm Central European Time (about 4pm to 7am New Zealand Standard Time), but even if it’s dark out, it is still fascinating to see them working away inside the hive at all hours. Nike Scarpe Italia

    You may notice that they seem to be working harder than usual ( well spotted!) That’s because the hive recently suffered a collapse. nike pas cher Not the kind of collapse normally associate with Colony Collapse Disorder; the bees didn’t disappear, but rather, the comb toppled over.

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  • The honey bees are now working their abdomens off to get the hive re-established and, as of writing this, they look to be doing a great job.

    From what we’ve seen so far, the camera positioned at the entrance to the hive doesn’t move at all, but nonetheless effectively captures the ceaseless hustle and bustle of the bees’ daily trips, taking off and landing as they collect pollen for the colony. New Balance Pas Cher But it’s the cameras inside the hive that is the most intriguing. I’ve had the stream open all day on my computer and have caught myself being hypnotised watching them go about their business inside, building new combs, protecting the queen, raising new generations of workers and drones, crawling around doing general maintenance, and of course producing honey.

    The hive is situated in the small town of Wall, Bavaria, Germany but now anyone from around the world can get a glimpse of live in the hive.

    What’s Wrong With Your Chicken? And Other Animal Related Stories Part 1

    It was a Friday evening, goedkoop nike air max 2016 I’d been looking after some chickens for a friend who had gone overseas for a while and everything had been smooth sailing until someone pointed out that one of my charges, Amy, was looking a bit under the weather.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Case Keenum – Houston Cougars palatino;”>I’ve never kept chickens before and only know the basics, my friend could not be contacted and all the vets in the area were off until Monday. Google was of little help as all of Amy’s symptoms were pretty common to every bird illness known to humankind. Maglie Atlanta Hawks Lethargy, not eating, Nike buty drinking or preening and refusing to move. She wasn’t egg bound, her crop was fine but by the next morning she looked even more miserable. What to do? The only thing I could think of was watering down some New Dawn and figuring out how to syringe feed a grumpy bird. nike air max 2017 femme noir For many years New Dawn has been our go-to treatment when people aren’t feeling well so I figured it was worth a shot with a chicken.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Maglie Miami Heat palatino;”>Once you get past the initial challenge of wrangling a bird, Canotte Atlanta Hawks a syringe, a beak attached to said grumpy bird and some sticky spillage it’s easy enough to treat a chicken with honey water.

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  • After day one of the New Dawn trial Amy had stopped getting worse and looked brighter, billig nike air max by the end of day two she was at least trying to fight me off which was a good sign, and by Monday morning she was up and out of her box, and eating with the other chickens as if nothing had happened – And I no longer had to hand feed and wash down a chicken three times a day! She was now back to her normal self and giving the other hens a rough time over her favourite water feeder, hooray!

    So I still have no idea what was wrong with her or how exactly the New Dawn helped but I can say for sure that if you have a sick animal and no access to a vet then it’s worth a go. It has natural antibacterial properties and can help our immune systems so it makes sense for it to do the same for animals too – the boost of sugar probably helps as well.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, Air Jordan 2 Retro palatino;”>In Part 2 of our Animal Related Stories I’ll be talking about a gorgeous ex shelter cat that had been given a week to live and is still going strong much to the amazement of his vet and delight of his new owner!

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    Two Remote Scottish Isles To Become UK’s First Reserve For Honey Bees

    There are around 250 native species of bee in Britain but just a single honey bee – the Apis mellifera. The isles of Colonsay and Oronsay are currently home to around 50 colonies and have now been named in a new Scottish Government order to protect the species from cross-breeding and disease.

    The Bee Keeping (Colonsay and Oronsay) Order 2013 comes into force on 1 January and will make it an offence to keep any honeybees on the islands except Apis mellifera, whose hardiness allows them to survive the harsh climate of Scotland’s west coast.

    Beekeeper Andrew Abrahams has campaigned for the islands to be recognised as a sanctuary for the species.

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  • He began keeping bees on Colonsay 35 years ago, but the island has an even longer tradition as a haven for the black bee. Air Max 2017 Dames Its isolation and lack of an existing honeybee population saw it chosen as the site for an experimental breeding station for the native bee in 1941.

    Welcoming the new legislation, Abrahams said: “It’s the government’s acknowledgement that native bees should be conserved because they are much more suitable to our difficult environment, and the increasingly difficult environment global warming will bring us.”

    Most of Britain’s native honeybee species were wiped out in the early 20th century by the “Isle of Wight disease”, caused by a parasitic mite which spread throughout the country.

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  • A few isolated populations survived and formed the basis of apiaries set up by Abrahams in 1978.

    The biggest threat to bees kept in apiaries today is the deadly Varroa mite, which was first discovered in the UK in 1992 and has led to the virtual elimination of feral bee colonies in many areas. Adidas Scarpe Uomo Colonsay was chosen as a reserve because its bees are free from the disease and are genetically pure.

    The Scottish Government granted the order after a public consultation received overwhelming support.

    Nigel Southworth, New Balance 574 Pas Cher editor of the Scottish Beekeeper magazine, said: “This is great news for beekeeping, Asics Gel Lyte 5 męskie not only in Scotland, but the whole of the UK and beyond.

    “Congratulations to Andrew for achieving this and full credit to the Scottish Government for going ahead with the reserve.

    “At a time when honeybees are facing perhaps the greatest threat to their survival, this very positive move could be seen in future years to be one of the landmark decisions that helped not only to save this kind of bee, but triggered new initiatives to help both the honeybees and mankind.”

    Eric McArthur, vice president of Glasgow and District Beekeepers’ Association, said: “The need for this reserve has been a long time in coming.”

    McArthur added that the Colonsay and Oronsay reserve ranks in importance with Australia’s Kangaroo Island, which was designated as a reserve for the native bee of Italy, Apis mellifera ligustica, which was imported there in the 1880s. It is now believed to hold the last remaining pure stock of the species anywhere in the world.

    McArthur said: “The honey bees on Colonsay and Oronsay have the same significance for future Apis mellifera mellifera genetic purity as Kangaroo Island has for Apis mellifera lig­ustica.

    “These islands will become a Mecca not only for worldwide beekeepers interested in seeing the pure race Apis mellifera mellifera for themselves but also for scientists investigating the limits of genetic diversity in any closed and isolated population.

    “The importance of the Col­onsay and Oronsay honeybee reserve to Scotland’s economy cannot be stressed strongly enough and the islands should be developed as a Centre of Excellence for the black bee of Scotland.”

    Environment and climate change minister Paul Wheelhouse, who signed the order, said the new reserve fits in with wider work being undertaken on bee health in Scotland and would be significant in ensuring a bright future for black bees on the island.

    “The Bee Keeping Order illustrates how our non-native species legislation can be used to protect our native wildlife,” he said.

    “The order is a targeted measure to protect an important population of black bees on Colonsay from hybridisation with non-native bees.

    “We are working in close collaboration with the Scottish Beekeepers Association and Bee Farmers Association to deliver the ten-year Honeybee Health Strategy, Jordan 11 Pre-School which aims to achieve a sustainable and healthy population of honeybees for pollination and honey production in Scotland.”

    <span style="font-size: x-small; font-family: georgia, Fjällräven Kånken Ryggsäckar palatino;”>via The Scotsman. Images via flickr, Colonsay Information, and 2 Tortoises’ Escapade

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    Less Urban Beekeeping, More Bee-Friendly Plants, say Scientists

    Over the last few years, the plight of the honey bee has had its profile raised in a number of ways. air max pas cher The importance of our food producing friends cannot be overstated, but one result of this public sentiment to help save them may actually end up doing them harm according to scientists. adidas gazelle uomo rosse The rise in popularity of urban beekeeping has seen many big names get in on the act and start up their own rooftop operations, among them the London Stock Exchange, the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, and even the White House.

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  • There’s even an entire honey company that relies solely on the efforts of urban beekeeping.

    However scientists from the Laboratory of Apiculture and Social Insects (LASI) at the University of Sussex have written in The Biologist that such a burgeoning practice may end up doing more harm than good. Kole Calhoun Baseball Jersey Major cities like London, New York and Toronto have brought about a 220% rise in beekeepers since 1999, while in five years alone beekeepers in Greater London tripled from 464 to 1,237. asics scarpe 2017 Professor Francis Ratnieks and Dr Karin Alton from LASI argue that such a huge increase could put a strain on the nectar and pollen supplies available to the bees in those areas.

    The scientists recognise that many urban properties set up rooftop hives in order to strengthen their ‘green’ image, or to help with team-building exercises, but they point out that simply introducing more bees is not the answer. nike air max pas cher With 75% of all the land in the UK being agricultural, there is a distinct lack of areas rich in wildflowers, so introducing a greater population of honey bees into urban areas without doing anything about their source of pollen could spell big problems.

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    “If a game park was short of food for elephants, you wouldn’t introduce more elephants, so why should we take this approach with bees?”

     

    Ratnieks explains; “Since World War Two the spread of intensive farming has greatly reduced areas rich in wildflowers, such as hay meadows. nike air max 2016 goedkoop

    “If the problem is not enough flowers, increasing the number of hives risks making that problem worse.

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  • The honey bee is just one of many insect species which feed on nectar and pollen.

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  • Having a high density of honey bee hives is not only bad for honey bees, but may also affect bumblebees and other species feeding on the same flowers.

    Furthermore, Ratnieks and Alton warn that with so many rooftop hives being set up in metropolitan areas, the rise in inexperienced beekeepers could end up spreading certain honey bee diseases, especially American foulbrood (AFB), a highly contagious bacterial infection of the honey bee larvae.

    Each new hive placed in London would need the equivalent of one hectare of borage or 8.3 hectares of lavender, so Alton suggests the honey bee cause would be better served if those concerned introduced more bee-friendly flowers and a welcoming habitat for them.

    Spring Has Sprung!

    Spring is well and truly here. The daffodils are out and the lawnmower is getting worked overtime. In keeping with the theme of new life, we at Davidson’s Apiaries are absolutely chuffed to welcome another addition to our extended clan. sac kanken pas cher Rosalind River is a happy and healthy little cherub who was safely delivered only a few short weeks ago.

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    <span style="font-family: georgia, Fjallraven Kanken Large palatino;”>In celebration of her arrival, Canotte Detroit Pistons we at The Apiary are giving all our customers the opportunity to enjoy something Rosalind has already benefited from. In her first few days she was suffering a bit of nappy rash, but with a daily application of our Infant Skin Care after every other nappy change, the redness is gone and she’s back to being a bouncy little thing, without it making a reappearance.

    <span style="font-family: georgia, air max 2017 goedkoop palatino;”>So if you spend over $40 at The Apiary then we’ll throw in a sample jar of the infant range in with your order so your own little poppet can benefit from its soothing formula on red or otherwise itchy bums (or anywhere else for that matter).

    Also, since it is Spring, gardens will be blossoming in full colour soon, if they haven’t already done so. So expect to see more honey bees frequenting your own patch. In conjunction with this increased traffic, fjällräven kånken Laptop 15 we”ll soon be posting about organic, nike air max pas cher bee-friendly insect sprays you can use on your flowers and veges, as well as what plants to have in your garden that will attract our beloved pollinators. soldes air max 1 So keep an eye on the blog for handy tips and advice on having a healthy and thriving garden, nike air max 2016 blauw and get out there and enjoy the sun!

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